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1841 Occupations1851 Occupations1861 Occupations1871 Occupations1881 Occupations1891 Occupations
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Occupations - AllOccupations - MaleOccupations - Female

Occupations in Beeston, June 1841

Industry GroupOccupation Group  Total Population Heads of Household  Wives
.Land Services2.330.110.0
ManufactureMfr/W-sale - Food/drink.550.440.0
.Mfr/W-sale - Other.624.321.0
.Labour - General3.14140.12120.0
MiningQuarry, etc5.550.220.0
.Gloves, etc10.000.000.0
.Other textile.220.110.0
TradeRetail - food/drink.25232.23212.0
.Retail - other.16124.1394.0
.Total Employed.989720269.50846246.22
.Own Means13.381820.231310.1
.At School.000.000.0
.Not Employed.17636081155.26620.398
.Overall Total.279013461444.55748176.421

The table reveals a number of interesting facts relating to the pattern of employment in Beeston in 1841:
  • The female population outnumbers the male population by just over 7%
  • 52% of the working population is working in the textile industry (virtually the same ratio for both working males and females)
  • 18% of the working population is working in the lace industry (21% of working males, 9% of working females)
  • 53% of household heads are working in textiles, 24% of them in the lace industry
  • Hosiery knitting still employs 26% of the working population
  • Just over 10% of the working population is employed in agriculture and horticulture combined
  • Almost 19% of married women are employed, overwhelmingly in the textile industry

Note : In the 1841 Census, the relationship of members of each household to its Head was not recorded. This means that the statistics relating to wives are based on an assessment of likely wives of heads of household.
There is no indication in the census as to school attendance. This means that no figures are available for those 'at school', although many undoubtably were.

Behind these overall facts - which themselves beg many questions - we might expect to be able to discover evidence relating to industry trends, the effect of immigration and emigration on the workforce and of social trends - including the employment of women and children. Later, we would hope to study more detailed social trends, such as birth and death rates, family size, etc.

As a start, we have prepared a breakdown of the population by gender and age. To view, choose each of the following options:

Click to view our analysis of the Male Population in 1841 by Age and Occupational Groupings

Click to view our analysis of the Female Population by Age and Occupational Groupings

Click to view a Similar Analysis for the 1851 Census
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Notes on Methods :This, and other analyses of the Beeston census, have been prepared from the author's database of Beeston database which includes transcriptions of all available censuses. The author's own industry and occupational classifications have been used; these attempt to present an analysis based, wherever possible, entirely on industrial groupings and without, for example, considerations of social class14; in particular, ancillary workers (such as factory engine drivers, clerks, managers, etc) have been included in the respective industry totals as it is felt that this reflects more accurately the effect of that industry on the local economy - although the numbers involved are relatively small. Another example of the effect of this is that station masters, railway engine drivers, railway booking clerks and station porters would all be classified in the "Transport:Railway" as they all contribute to running the railway and are working in that role because of the existence of that railway. In particular, the analysis attempts to avoid factors relating to social class - such as those included to some degree by Tillott15 and by Armstrong16 in studies elsewhere. Analysis by this dimension will be attempted separately at another time.

The figures for "Wives" only include those who are recorded as living with their husbands who are recorded as Head of Household.

Notes on occupation groupings
1Includes masons, architects, bricklayers, plumbers, joiners, painters, etc and their apprentices
2Includes gamekeepers, veterinaries, land surveyors, etc
3Labourers not identifiable to a specific industry
4Included to quantify a major industry not present before about 1875
5Includes brickyard workers
6Includes clerks & bookkeepers (except those associated with specific industries), insurance workers, bankers, house agents, etc
7Includes local and state officials, military, police, firemen, tax collectors, etc
8Includes hairdressers, chimney sweeps, piano tuners and others performing services for individuals.
9Includes winders, etc who may be more specifically part of the lace industry
10Those making gloves and similar products, usually on knitting frames; an extension of the hosiery industry
11Includes blacksmiths, shoemakers, cabinet makers, saddlers, printers, tinsmiths, etc and their apprentices
12Includes tailors, dressmakers, bonnet makers, stay makers, shirt makers, etc
13Living on personal wealth, annuities, share and property income, etc

Source References
14Similar to that used by Charles Booth, in 1886 for his social survey, Life and Labour of the People of London - but with much less detail and with an emphasis relative to local occupations.
15P. M. Tillott - who devised a classification used in census analysis by extra-mural classes in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire in the 1960s
16Alan Armstrong, Stability and Change in an English County Town - A Social Study of York 1801-51, Cambridge University Press

© David Hallam - 2012